The Fed underestimated the size and impact of the mortgage-backed securities market. Banks had hired "quant jocks" to create these new securities. They wrote computer programs that sorted packages of mortgages into high-risk and low-risk bundles. The high-risk bundles paid more but were more likely to default. The low-risk bundles were safer, but paid less.
Tulip Mania (in the mid-1630s) is often considered to be the first recorded speculative bubble. Historically, early stock market bubbles and crashes have also their roots in socio-politico-economic activities of the 17th-century Dutch Republic (the birthplace of the world's first formal stock exchange and market),[3][4][5][6][7] the Dutch East India Company (the world's first formally listed public company), and the Dutch West India Company (WIC/GWIC) in particular. As Stringham & Curott (2015) remarked, "Business ventures with multiple shareholders became popular with commenda contracts in medieval Italy (Greif, 2006, p. 286), and Malmendier (2009) provides evidence that shareholder companies date back to ancient Rome. Yet the title of the world's first stock market deservedly goes to that of seventeenth-century Amsterdam, where an active secondary market in company shares emerged. The two major companies were the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, founded in 1602 and 1621. Other companies existed, but they were not as large and constituted a small portion of the stock market (Israel [1989] 1991, 109–112; Dehing and 't Hart 1997, 54; de la Vega [1688] 1996, 173)."[8]

There is no numerically specific definition of a stock market crash but the term commonly applies to steep double-digit percentage losses in a stock market index over a period of several days. Crashes are often distinguished from bear markets by panic selling and abrupt, dramatic price declines. Bear markets are periods of declining stock market prices that are measured in months or years. Crashes are often associated with bear markets, however, they do not necessarily go hand in hand. The crash of 1987, for example, did not lead to a bear market. Likewise, the Japanese bear market of the 1990s occurred over several years without any notable crashes.
The latest round of US/China tariffs had been long flagged and both the US increase (10% on US$200 billion of imports from China, but not yet 25%) and China’s less than proportional retaliation (5-10% on US$60 billion of imports) were less than feared. This, along with reports China is planning a broad cut to its tariffs, was positive and leaves scope for negotiations. More significantly, we are still a long way from a full-blown trade war. After implementation of the latest round, only about 12% of US imports will be subject to increased tariffs and the average tariff increase across all imports will be just 1.6% - implying about a 0.2% boost to inflation and a less than 0.2% hit to growth. In China, the economic impact is likely to be less than 0.5% of GDP. This is all a long way from 1930 when the US levied a 20% tariff hike on all imports and other countries did the same making the depression “great”.

There are a few things to bear in mind here. The first is that investors can overestimate their ability to endure losses during the good times. So be a little more conservative in your allocation than you might think. Also, it's not just about having nerves of steel, it's also about how soon you'll need the money in your portfolio. Even if you are a fearless and disciplined investor, it doesn't matter if you need to spend down a big chunk of your portfolio each year. Regardless of your temperament you'll be a forced seller in a weak market, and therefore, considering having some of your assets more conservatively positioned so that they are a more robust source of cash when you need them can make sense.

To be clear, this isn't an exhaustive list of things that could potentially cause a stock market crash. And it's likely that more than one of these factors could combine to cause a crash. The 2008 crash, for one, was primarily caused by excessive speculation that caused a bubble in real estate prices, along with excessive leverage taken on by both consumers and financial institutions, as well as investor panic after banks started to fail.
Yes, the market will fall by about 10% about once a year on average. However, those bigger crashes where the market just carries on down that are prominent in market memory, are rare events. Since many statistical techniques are reliant on a lot of data for robustness, those same techniques may be out of their depth when examining crashes. In fact, these events seem to break the patterns that seem to govern the market most of the times.

Interest rates are another important factor to consider. The Fed has only raised interest rates one half of a percent, but actual mortgage rates have come back down. That said, rates could eventually rise, so it’s wise for investors to prepare a strategy for when that occurs as it can impact their ability to finance an investment portfolio. Update: Mortgage rates have started to rise as the Fed continues to increase rates.
The latest swoon, which knocked the S&P 500 down more than 3 percent Wednesday, signaled to many Wall Street pros that the decline was entering a new, more dangerous phase. There’s growing concern now that this decline is more than a garden variety pullback, or drop of 5 percent to 9.99 percent, and could morph into a drop of 10 percent of more for the broad market.
It’s surprising how unruffled homeowner’s were in the GTA during the trade negotiations, however if you check out the city prices of each city below you can see who was panicking. Aurora, where Magna auto parts is headquartered saw detached home prices plummet $173,000 last month. In one month, in Toronto central where homes are most expensive, we saw an uncharacteristic drop of $111,000. Other districts saw rises so it could be those sellers bought in less expensive areas. See the district stats chart.
Stock market crashes are usually caused by more than one factor. In fact, there are often two sets of reasons for a crash. One set of conditions creates the environment for the sell-off, and another set of factors triggers the beginning of the sell-off. Just because there is a market bubble, it doesn’t mean the market will crash. Usually something needs to occur to cause investors to begin selling and buyers to step away from the stock market.
For example, the United States has a set of thresholds in place to guard against crashes. If the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) falls 2,400 points (threshold 2) before 1:00 p.m., the market will be frozen for an hour. If it falls below 3,600 points (threshold 3), the market closes for the day. Other countries have similar measures in place. The problem with this method today is that if one stock exchange closes, shares can often still be bought or sold in other exchanges, which can cause the preventative measures to backfire.

Toronto is a high value housing market similar to New York City or the Bay Area of California, and TO is a city destined to be a super city.  It’s unlikely that a property purchase in Toronto will be a disappointment over the long run. If you see the Toronto home price charts, you’ll notice that prices have climbed in the last 18 months. So buyers have not lost their equity.


Our tail-hedged portfolio consists of S&P 500 and out-of-the-money put options (specifically one delta which has a strike roughly 30% to 35% below spot) on the S&P 500. At the beginning of every calendar month, using actual option prices, the number of third-month options (with a maturity from 11 to 12 weeks, and also carrying over the payoff from unexpired options) is determined such that the tail-hedged portfolio breaks even for a down 20% move in the S&P 500 over a month. From practice, for scaling the payoff, we can safely assume the S&P 500 options’ implied volatility, or IVol, surface would look similar to the one observed after the lows of the October 2002 crash.

Any of the measurements people quote—any of the stock market indexes which go up and down—are just measurements. They're averages. They're big bundles of numbers all mixed together. In all truth, they only reflect a snapshot of a point in time. They're numbers that stocks happened to end on when trading stopped for the day (or, at least, paused until after hours trading took over).

If you really believe the market is headed for an imminent crash, there are all sorts of places you could invest your money. You could move it all into cash, you could buy gold or real estate or for that matter you could even take an aggressive approach and try to capitalize on stocks' carnage by loading up on investments designed to rise when the market falls, such as bear market funds or put options.
By the time of Trump's inauguration and into the first months of his presidency, broad market indexes climbed to new heights. Early conventional wisdom suggests that all of his signals on reducing regulation and corporate taxes would improve profits. Financial services, petroleum, private prisons, and other market sectors saw even larger gains as the administration made specific gestures to shuffle more money their way.
The Housing Market Crash of 2007 was the worst housing crash in U.S. history. The Housing Market Crash of 2007 was the cause of the financial crisis. This nearly caused the U.S. to experience another depression like the Great Depression. There are a number of things we can look at to determine how the housing bubble occurred and what happened to cause the bubble to collapse.
The level of panic that we witnessed on Wall Street on Wednesday was breathtaking.  After a promising start to the day, the Dow Jones Industrial Average started plunging, and at the close it was down another 608 points.  Since peaking at 26,951.81 on October 3rd, the Dow has now fallen 2,368 points, and all of the gains for 2018 have been completely wiped out.  But things are even worse when we look at the Nasdaq.  The percentage decline for the Nasdaq almost doubled the Dow’s stunning plunge on Wednesday, and it has now officially entered correction territory.  To say that it was a “bloodbath” for tech stocks on Wednesday would be a major understatement.  Several big name tech stocks were in free fall mode as panic swept through the marketplace like wildfire.  As I noted the other day, October 2018 looks a whole lot like October 2008, and many believe that the worst is yet to come.
Another criticism of certain conventional risk models, is that they regard market crashes as extremely unlikely. Market models suggested 2008 was an incredibly rare event. However, the 1930s crash was fairly similar. Having extremely improbable events just eighty years apart makes very little sense. Of course, we could be massively unlucky, but it is of course far more likely that the model is wrong. And by wrong, we should be clear that we mean inappropriate for the high stress environments of a crash. Most of the time these models hold up just fine, but at the extremes they don't.
Mass censorship of conservatives and libertarians is exploding. You’ve already seen this with the demonetization and ultimate purge of Infowars and other alternative media outlets by mega-corporations working in tangent to stifle competition. But you are important in this fight. Your voice is important. Your free thought is important. Make no mistake, you are just as important as anyone in the Anti-American establishment.
Can I guarantee this approach will lead to the best results over the long-term? Of course not. But at least you'll be following a disciplined rational strategy rather than engaging in a never-ending guessing game of trying to decide when to get out of the market (and where to put your money once you do) and then trying to figure out when to get back in. That's a game you can't consistently win.
Even though the financial crisis was resolved by the start of 2009 the housing market continued to decline throughout 2009. There were over 3 million foreclosure filings for 2009. Unemployment rose to over 10% and the housing market crash created the worst recession since the early 1980’s. By the 4th quarter of 2009, the U.S. has experienced significant GDP growth and corporate earnings had increased by over 100%. The Unemployment Rate had stabilized towards the end of 2009. By 2010 housing prices still haven’t gone up and we are still working on a surplus of housing inventory.
Still lacking sufficient demand from fundamental buyers or cross-market arbitrageurs, HFTs began to quickly buy and then resell contracts to each other—generating a “hot-potato” volume effect as the same positions were rapidly passed back and forth. Between 2:45:13 and 2:45:27, HFTs traded over 27,000 contracts, which accounted for about 49 percent of the total trading volume, while buying only about 200 additional contracts net.
But if U.S. GDP growth were to falter -- let’s say dip to 1% or lower on an annual basis -- then it would be really difficult to support existing valuations for companies in the technology and biotech arenas. And since tech and biotech have played such a critical role over the past nine-plus years in pushing stocks higher, they could easily be responsible for dragging the stock market into a correction.
I have good reasons why i prep. I just dont have any confidence in govenment and am no convinved that covernment and city officials, etites etc are busy sitting around worry thier entitles asses off worry about me not eating or having a hard time. Or i am being too paranoid. Agency ass clowns think that you all are so dumb to relax and so that they can steer thinking by convine shtf-effers that i have bad grammar and can’t spell.
For example, we have around 20,000 days of trading date over the last century to help us understand day to day movements in stocks. Yet, for crashes there are only  around ten to twenty events over the past century depending on how a crash is defined, so there’s simply less data to look at. More worryingly, at times of market stress the market's behavior seems to change.
By 1983, consumers found that most predicted uses of home computers were unrealistic, except for games. Children used most home computers[9]—Coleco planned to market its Adam home computer to "boys age 8 to 16 and their fathers ... the two groups that really fuel computer purchases"[10]—so games dominated home computers' software libraries. A 1984 compendium of reviews of Atari 8-bit software used 198 pages for games compared to 167 for all other software types.[11] Because computers generally had more memory and faster processors than a console, they permitted more sophisticated games. They could also be used for tasks such as word processing and home accounting. Games were easier to duplicate, since they could be packaged as floppy disks or cassette tapes instead of ROM modules (though some cassette-based systems retained ROM modules as an "instant-on" option). This opened the field to a cottage industry of third-party software developers. Writeable storage media allowed players to save games in progress, a useful feature for increasingly complex games which was not available on the consoles of the era.
It is not just the uber rish who lose the most. It is the middle class workers. Those of us who have worked hard and survied years of down sizing in larger corporations who will lose a great deal…along with all those who also benifit from our generosity over the years. All the school supply drives, blood drives, holliday food drives to name a few. We try to contribute the amount to our 401’s to earn the companies matching benifits. We are pentalized for taking out our money until we reach the age of 59. Those of us who are to close to retiring don’t have the opportunity to recoup our money. So we will be faced with working to a much older age then we planned. So in reality…while we may be middle income…we don’t have the ability to just put out our money. If we lose a great portion of our 401’s and there is another housing market crash they have managed to chip away yet another chuck of middle imcome households. Sooner or later it will only be the very poor and the very rich! We need a solution to bring back the middle income and a solution for more and more folks to have the opportunity to move beyond lower income! We have done our best to prepare for what life might throw at us short term and long time, but I do believe it is going to be a bummpy ride, so buckle up my prepper friends.

Investing in the stock market is inherently risky, but what makes for winning long-term returns is the ability to ride out the unpleasantness and remain invested for the eventual recovery (which, historically speaking, is always on the horizon). You’ll be able to do that if you know how much volatility you’re willing to stomach in exchange for higher potential returns.

Investors bore the emotional scars from the crash for the next four years. On June 1, 2012, they panicked over a poor May jobs report and the eurozone debt crisis. The Dow dropped 275 points. The 10-year benchmark Treasury yield dropped to 1.443 during intraday trading. This was the lowest rate in more than 200 years. It signaled that the confidence that evaporated during 2008 had not quite returned to Wall Street. 
From October 6–10 the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) closed lower in all five sessions. Volume levels were record-breaking. The DJIA fell over 1,874 points, or 18%, in its worst weekly decline ever on both a points and percentage basis. The S&P 500 fell more than 20%.[36] The week also set 3 top ten NYSE Group Volume Records with October 8 at #5, October 9 at #10, and October 10 at #1.[37]

While every care has been taken in the preparation of this article, AMP Capital Investors Limited (ABN 59 001 777 591, AFSL 232497) and AMP Capital Funds Management Limited (ABN 15 159 557 721, AFSL 426455) makes no representations or warranties as to the accuracy or completeness of any statement in it including, without limitation, any forecasts. Past performance is not a reliable indicator of future performance. This article has been prepared for the purpose of providing general information, without taking account of any particular investor’s objectives, financial situation or needs. An investor should, before making any investment decisions, consider the appropriateness of the information in this article, and seek professional advice, having regard to the investor’s objectives, financial situation and needs. This article is solely for the use of the party to whom it is provided.
If you make 6% after taxes and fees on your investments, then you’re ahead by 3.5%, or $20k/year after the transaction fees are taken off. In Vancouver, like the couple from the G&M article, you’re ahead by more not only in percentage terms due to a higher price-to-rent, but also because the amounts are higher ($1M houses rather than $650k), so you’re even further ahead in dollar terms ($45k per year).

Despite fears of a repeat of the 1930s Depression, the market rallied immediately after the crash, posting a record one-day gain of 102.27 the very next day and 186.64 points on Thursday October 22. It took only two years for the Dow to recover completely; by September 1989, the market had regained all of the value it had lost in the 1987 crash. The Dow Jones Industrial Average gained six-tenths of a percent during the calendar year 1987.
No expert prediction or technical indicator is necessary. The makings of the next crash are already clear. Whether it’s Janet Yellen or Jerome Powell who will head the Federal Reserve after February 2018, interest rates can only move higher. At the current rate of debt, even 100 basis points (one percent) higher interest will mean $200.0 billion in additional (not all, mind you, just the extra bit) in debt.
It is believed that Khashoggi was dismembered after being abducted by the Saudis, and all of the major western powers have expressed major concern about his fate.  But the Saudis insist that they didn’t have anything to do with his disappearance, and they are threatening “greater action” if any sanctions are imposed upon them.  The following comes from USA Today…
"This is a kind of a panic sell-off occurs when the usually large amount of stop losses gets triggered as markets were not expecting such a drawdown in a single trading session," Mustafa Nadeem told FE Online. It was basically widespread to multiple companies, specifically, to NBFC space as there were concerns over credit risk coupled with that plunge in private banks, NBFC, and infrastructure housing finance companies, Nadeem said further. A lot of stop losses that were there in the market at much deeper levels of around 11,200 - 11,150, Mustafa Nadeem said. It was hardly 8-9 minutes of transactions that were much bigger that dragged the Benchmark index down. Though, on the flipside, There was buying seen at lower levels that pushed markets back above 11K level. Sensex was down almost a 1000 point within those few minutes, Mustafa Nadeem said. Technically this will change some technical setup in the medium term. If one would recall the same mode was seen in Early January this year. 
But it's during those times when you need to guard against overriding the rational process you went through to build your portfolio. If you want to re-evaluate the portfolio mix you arrived at earlier just to confirm that it's right for you and even possibly make a small tweak or two, fine. But you don't want to let fear and emotions dictate your investing strategy and lead you to make impulsive decisions you may rue later.
Likewise, stock prices have defeated all forecasting efforts, and may well belong to the same set of basic unpredictability. While occasionally somebody may seem to be on the right side of an investment ahead of a big move, this is a far cry from actually forecasting such move with any kind of precision in terms of timing and size. For each “hunch” that is successful, a myriad others fail. Despite anecdotes, there seems to be no clear evidence that investors who get a big move “right” are anything but lucky.
The bottom line: As a sandpile grows, all sort of sand “avalanches” take place, but it is impossible to predict how big or how often they occur. Sometimes a few grains roll down the slope, while occasionally a large avalanche carves a big section of the sandpile. The size and frequency of those avalanches, mathematically speaking, bear a notable resemblance to the size and frequency of earthquakes, solar flares, river floods, forest fires, and stock market returns. Intriguingly, all of them have defied attempts at prediction. The question is why.
Still lacking sufficient demand from fundamental buyers or cross-market arbitrageurs, HFTs began to quickly buy and then resell contracts to each other—generating a “hot-potato” volume effect as the same positions were rapidly passed back and forth. Between 2:45:13 and 2:45:27, HFTs traded over 27,000 contracts, which accounted for about 49 percent of the total trading volume, while buying only about 200 additional contracts net.

During 1930 and 1931 in particular, unemployed workers went on strike, demonstrated in public, and otherwise took direct action to call public attention to their plight. Within the UK, protests often focused on the so-called Means Test, which the government had instituted in 1931 as a way to limit the amount of unemployment payments made to individuals and families. For working people, the Means Test seemed an intrusive and insensitive way to deal with the chronic and relentless deprivation caused by the economic crisis. The strikes were met forcefully, with police breaking up protests, arresting demonstrators, and charging them with crimes related to the violation of public order.[39]


Mati Greenspan, an analyst with the trading platform eToro, told Business Insider on Tuesday that volumes from Japan and South Korea had been tailing off in recent days. Traders in these markets are usually buyers, and a large-scale exit could have created an imbalance in the market, with more sellers than buyers driving down prices and sparking a panic.

Despite the UK's one-toe-in-the-water approach to the European Union, as evidenced by keeping the British Pound instead of the Euro as prime currency, the current state of the country is still tied to its membership. Trade deals will have to be renegotiated. Tarrifs may be in play. The two year process of political and economic disentangling is unprecedented, and that creates uncertainty.


Since February 2013, the broad market has three circuit breakers tied to the performance of the S&P 500 index. If it loses 7%, 13%, or 20% of its value compared to the previous days close, trading halts for a period of time. If anything can be considered a stock market crash, it's hitting these circuit breakers.Remember, Black Monday (October 19, 1987) saw the DJIA lose 22.6% in a single day.


FIDough backed this up with, “Lots of research shows that most people tend to sell near the bottom, and reenter the market after it has gone up significantly.  In other words, most people do worse by trying to protect their money from market crashes.  The truth is, if you keep on investing and stick to your rebalancing plan throughout market cycles, you will do great.”
Scenario:  Big money chases few homes, and when governments persist in stopping or not supporting land development, speculators become more confident prices will rise further. Then a politician or FED president steps in with their reactive solution, at the end of the business cycle where employment and profits will begin to drop. Speculators/investors pull out fast, and the slide begins.
It's impossible to point to a single reason why any of myriad measurements of the stock market increase or decrease in a day. A company releasing great news about its business might draw more investors to buy its stock and push up the price, but you can't tell if they're speculating or if they've analyzed the stock and its financial basics and really believe it's a good price now.

There are numerous housing crash factors discussed below from geopolitical events to trade related to rising interest rates, the end of stimulus spending, and excessively high home prices.  A trade war with China could be crash factor #1.  Will debt, deficits, and tariff barriers be the issues that start bursting housing bubbles? Will it be political opposition by the democrats and meddling within the US?
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