Stock market crashes are social phenomena where external economic events combine with crowd behavior and psychology in a positive feedback loop where selling by some market participants drives more market participants to sell. Generally speaking, crashes usually occur under the following conditions:[1] a prolonged period of rising stock prices and excessive economic optimism, a market where P/E ratios (Price-Earning ratio) exceed long-term averages, and extensive use of margin debt and leverage by market participants. Other aspects such as wars, large-corporation hacks, changes in federal laws and regulations, and natural disasters of highly economically productive areas may also influence a significant decline in the NYSE value of a wide range of stocks. All such stock drops may result in the rise of stock prices for corporations competing against the affected corporations.
As a case in point, I present to you subprime auto loans, or loans given to consumers with less-than-prime credit scores (usually 550 to 619 on the FICO score scale). Having a lower credit score typically gives these folks fewer lending options, which allows lenders that are willing to work with subprime consumers to charge a notably higher interest rate, relative to prime-rated consumers. The problem is these consumers usually have subpar credit scores for a reason, and delinquency rates on these subprime and deep subprime loans are shooting higher.

Market crashes are far more common in our imagination than in reality. This is because they are vivid and scary events. Given our evolution, we are wired to worry about these sorts of vivid events. While, this may have been useful in helping us avoid getting eaten by tigers, it's less useful for rational, disciplined stock market investing. By thinking this topic through now, hopefully you're a little better prepared when the next crash hits.

The CAPE ratio (also known as Shiller P/E ratio) is a long term cyclically adjusted measure of equity valuations devised by the respected economist Robert Shiller. The CAPE ratio has been at historically high level for several years, although high valuations alone do not mean a crash is imminent. Whether US stock prices today are in a stock bubble or not is debatable. In general, bubbles do not necessarily imply a crash, unless there is a catalyst.
The transition to a US centered economy puts the country into a vulnerable period of uncertainty and GDP risk. Companies are hoarding products from China right now while the tariff is 10%, but on January 1st 2019, it will be 25% and that should stop imports completely, especially if the US dollar should weaken. Will companies build factories here or instead hold off and hope for a Trump loss in 2020?
But China isn’t the only wild card in the global growth deck of cards. Over in the Eurozone, Italy is brazenly threatening to move forward with a budget proposal that would obscenely breach the European Union’s budget guidelines. The bureaucrats in Brussels are threatening fines. But this doesn’t appear to be enough to inhibit the Italian government, which is intent on increasing social welfare programs, adding to pensions and giving workers a tax cut.
Personally, I believe that the S&P 500 will bounce back on Friday, but that doesn’t mean that the crisis is over.  Remember, some of the best days in stock market history happened right in the middle of the financial crisis of 2008.  During market panics, we should expect to see dramatic ups and downs.  When markets are calm, that is good news for stocks, but when markets start swinging wildly that is usually a sign to start heading for the exits.
Based on our analysis, we believe that High Frequency Traders exhibit trading patterns inconsistent with the traditional definition of market making. Specifically, High Frequency Traders aggressively trade in the direction of price changes. This activity comprises a large percentage of total trading volume, but does not result in a significant accumulation of inventory. As a result, whether under normal market conditions or during periods of high volatility, High Frequency Traders are not willing to accumulate large positions or absorb large losses. Moreover, their contribution to higher trading volumes may be mistaken for liquidity by Fundamental Traders. Finally, when rebalancing their positions, High Frequency Traders may compete for liquidity and amplify price volatility.
So aim to build a war chest for a future market meltdown by accumulating cash. It's probably best not to overdo it, though, because the market may not crash for another few years, in which time all the cash you've amassed will not have been growing for you in stocks. You might just accumulate enough cash to establish meaningful positions in a few stocks. In general, it can be good to have no more than 10% of your overall net worth in cash for investments.
I have good reasons why i prep. I just dont have any confidence in govenment and am no convinved that covernment and city officials, etites etc are busy sitting around worry thier entitles asses off worry about me not eating or having a hard time. Or i am being too paranoid. Agency ass clowns think that you all are so dumb to relax and so that they can steer thinking by convine shtf-effers that i have bad grammar and can’t spell.
Everyone seems to have an explanation for why stock prices rise and fall. People are happy about the economy. People are worried about the economy. People want interest rates to rise. People want interest rates to fall. Europe looks good. Europe looks bad. Canada's raising tariffs. Canada reported extraordinary growth. Company A met its earnings goals. Company B didn't. Inflation numbers looked bad. Inflation numbers looked good. Gold is hot. Silver prices fell. Oil supplies are running low—or high. Unemployment numbers changed too much or too little. Euros went up against the dollar. Who knows?
The new companies reduced Atari's share of the cartridge-game market from 75% in 1981 to less than 40% in 1982.[26] David Crane, one of the founders of Activision after leaving Atari, recalled that during the six months between two consecutive Consumer Electronic Shows, the number of third-party developers jumped from 3 to 30. Attempting to imitate Activision, the new companies attempted to use programmers unfamiliar with game development to produce, Crane said, "the worst games you can imagine".[27] Companies lured away each other's programmers or used reverse engineering to learn how to make games for proprietary systems. Atari even hired several programmers from Mattel's Intellivision development studio, prompting a lawsuit by Mattel against Atari that included charges of industrial espionage.

On Black Monday, the markets were a bit different than today. That’s the explanation that many market optimists like to offer when they explain why another Black Monday can’t happen. That is, the market cannot lose some 23% of its value in a single trading session. They might be right, but in the opposite direction. The markets now have human as well as computer input through so-called robot trading. They have more variables and are more complicated. But information and risks travel much faster. If anything, the risks of a major market crash are higher today.
A bull market -- just like the one the U.S. stock market has experienced since 2009 -- happens when investors are optimistic about the markets and the economy, and when demand outpaces supply, thus driving up share prices. As bull markets peter out -- they can last anywhere from two years to nine years -- all it takes is a significant market event to create a crisis of confidence among investors and draw more sellers into the market. This can create a stock market crash that leads to a bear market.
Tom Lee had reduced his year-end Bitcoin price prediction from $25,000 to $15,000 last week, Nov. 16, following a massive decline on the markets that started on Nov. 14, with Bitcoin hitting yearly lows. Previously, the crypto bull had, several times, predicted that Bitcoin’s price would rise above $20,000 for the year’s end. Lee announced his first prediction in January this year, advising “aggressive buying,” while considering the $9,000 price point as “the biggest buying opportunity in 2018.”
Markets can also be stabilized by large entities purchasing massive quantities of stocks, essentially setting an example for individual traders and curbing panic selling. However, these methods are not only unproven, they may not be effective. In one famous example, the Panic of 1907, a 50 percent drop in stocks in New York set off a financial panic that threatened to bring down the financial system. J. P. Morgan, the famous financier and investor, convinced New York bankers to step in and use their personal and institutional capital to shore up markets.
On November 8, 2016, Donald Trump was declared to have been elected as the 45th president of the United States. During the evening and night of the 8th and through the morning of the 9th, global financial markets lost a tremendous amount of value—at one point, US markets had lost a trillion dollars in one of the biggest crashes ever. While the overnight US markets showed big losses, even hitting the circuit breakers, the day of November 9 closed with the three major stock indexes up over a point each. It's too early to tell what this means in the long term.
A year before its demise, Lehman's leverage ratio was a massive 30-to-1, which economists consider as being an extremely high risk. The investment banking giant had $22 billion in equity to back $691 billion in total assets. At that point, even a minuscule drop in asset value of 3% was enough to send one of Wall Street's giants careening into oblivion.
Despite fears of a repeat of the 1930s Depression, the market rallied immediately after the crash, posting a record one-day gain of 102.27 the very next day and 186.64 points on Thursday October 22. It took only two years for the Dow to recover completely; by September 1989, the market had regained all of the value it had lost in the 1987 crash. The Dow Jones Industrial Average gained six-tenths of a percent during the calendar year 1987.
The S&P BSE Sensex surged 368 points on Friday, the recovery after 970-point fall in this week earlier, to a day's high of 37,489.24 tracking the strongness in Indian rupee value against US dollar, lower crude oil prices, government's directive to oil marketers to book future prices of crude oil and positive Asian cues. Shares of ICICI Bank, Reliance Industries, HDFC Bank, ITC, Axis Bank, HDFC and SBI were the biggest positive point contributors to the benchmark index, as these stocks collectively added about 350 points. 
Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology suggests that there is evidence the frequency of stock market crashes follows an inverse cubic power law.[15] This and other studies such as Prof. Didier Sornette's work suggest that stock market crashes are a sign of self-organized criticality in financial markets.[16] In 1963, Mandelbrot proposed that instead of following a strict random walk, stock price variations executed a Lévy flight.[17] A Lévy flight is a random walk that is occasionally disrupted by large movements. In 1995, Rosario Mantegna and Gene Stanley analyzed a million records of the S&P 500 market index, calculating the returns over a five-year period.[18] Researchers continue to study this theory, particularly using computer simulation of crowd behaviour, and the applicability of models to reproduce crash-like phenomena.
In April 2015, Navinder Singh Sarao, a London-based point-and-click trader,[62] was arrested for his alleged role in the flash crash. According to criminal charges brought by the United States Department of Justice, Sarao allegedly used an automated program to generate large sell orders, pushing down prices, which he then cancelled to buy at the lower market prices. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission filed civil charges against Sarao.[63][64] In August 2015, Sarao was released on a £50,000 bail with a full extradition hearing scheduled for September with the US Department of Justice. Sarao and his company, Nav Sarao Futures Limited, allegedly made more than $40 million in profit from trading during the Flash Crash.[65]
Home prices have outpaced income. The average income-to-housing cost ratio is 30 percent. In some metro areas, it's skyrocketed to 40 or 50 percent. Unfortunately, metro areas are also where the jobs are. That forces young people to pay more for rent to be close to a job that doesn't pay enough to buy a house. Thirty-two percent of home sales today are going to first time homebuyers, compared to 40 percent historically, says the National Association of Realtors. Typically, this buyer is 32, earns $72,000, and pays $182,500 for a home. A two-income couple pays $208,500 on average.
TREB forecasted another strong year for home sales via the MLS®.  Their outlook for the Toronto region was 100,000+ home sales for the third consecutive year. Between 104,500 and 115,500 home sales are expected in 2017, with a point forecast of 110,000. TREB’s districts include Mississauga, Oakville, Vaughan, Newmarket, Aurora, Richmond Hill, Markham Bradford, Scarborough, Brampton, Oshawa and Milton.
Consider hiring a fee-only financial advisor to kick the tires on your portfolio and provide an independent perspective on your financial plan. In fact, it’s not uncommon for financial planners to have their own financial planner on their personal payroll for the same reason. An added bonus is knowing there’s someone to call to talk you through the tough times.

Ideally, at the start of your investment journey, you did risk profiling. If you skipped this step and are only now wondering how aligned your investments are to your temperament, that’s OK. Measuring your actual reactions during market agita will provide valuable data for the future. Just keep in mind that your answers may be biased based on the market’s most recent activity.
We are humbled by the overwhelming response we received for the "Invest Like a Pro" Virtual Stock Contest. We hope the last three months were as exciting for you as they were for us. Our goal was to take you on an eventful journey where you could mimic a real trading experience without any risk but at the same time win real cash prizes. In the process we hope you were able to brush up on your stock picking skills.