Financial crisis of 2007–08 16 Sep 2008 On September 16, 2008, failures of large financial institutions in the United States, due primarily to exposure of securities of packaged subprime loans and credit default swaps issued to insure these loans and their issuers, rapidly devolved into a global crisis resulting in a number of bank failures in Europe and sharp reductions in the value of equities (stock) and commodities worldwide. The failure of banks in Iceland resulted in a devaluation of the Icelandic króna and threatened the government with bankruptcy. Iceland was able to secure an emergency loan from the IMF in November. Later on, U.S. President George W. Bush signs the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act into law, creating a Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) to purchase failing bank assets. Had disastrous effects on the world economy along with world trade. [18] [19]
According to data from Equifax in August 2017, deep subprime auto loans -- i.e., loans with an origination VantageScore of 530 or less, on a scale of 300 to 850 -- have hit delinquency rates that hadn’t been seen since 2007. Interestingly enough, when examining the auto market as a whole, no red flags arise in terms of delinquency rates. But if you focus solely on subprime and deep subprime loans, they’ve been deteriorating of late. 
This begs the salient question: How much lower will the growth rate of earnings be in 2019 for the S&P 500? Earnings growth in 2018 peaked at 25%. However, with the top global economies all rolling over, peak corporate margins, trade wars, the waning of repatriation and stock buybacks, soaring worldwide debt and trillion dollar U.S. deficits, mounting rate hikes from global central banks and a Fed that is destroying $600 billion this year through its reverse QE program, it is doubtful that there will by any earnings growth at all next year. Nevertheless, Wall Street Shlls are still pricing in 10% earnings growth and slapping a big multiple on top of it.
In other words, bear markets are part of investing. You can’t avoid them – but you can make sure a bear market doesn’t wipe you out. Rule number one is to diversify, and periodically rebalance your portfolio. When a correction, stock market crash or bear market comes along, the stocks that fall the most are those that are trading at the highest valuations, those with the most debt, and those with the lowest margins.

The month began with more bad news. The Labor Department reported that the economy had lost a staggering 240,000 jobs in October. The AIG bailout grew to $150 billion. Treasury announced it was using part of the $700 billion bailouts to buy preferred stocks in the nations' banks. The Big Three automakers asked for a federal bailout. By November 20, 2008, the Dow had plummeted to 7,552.29, a new low. But the stock market crash of 2008 was not over yet.


In 1979, Activision became the industry's first third-party developer.[23] It was founded by Atari programmers who left the company because Atari did not allow credits to appear on their games and did not pay employees a royalty based on sales. At the time, Atari was owned by Warner Communications, and the developers felt that they should receive the same recognition that musicians, directors, and actors got from Warner's other divisions. After Activision went into business, Atari quickly sued to block sales of Activision's products, but failed to secure a restraining order and ultimately settled the case in 1982.[24] This court case legitimized third-party development, encouraging companies such as Quaker Oats (with their US Games division) to rush to open video-game divisions, hoping to impress both stockholders and consumers.

Though, again, that may be generally true, at times of severe market moves, surprisingly, often there is very little new news to justify the price change. Research on what moves stock prices, has found that prices can often move a lot without news. Also, in his book Irrational Exuberance, Robert Shiller finds that one of the biggest stock market moves of all time, 1987's Black Monday decline wasn't driven by any obvious economic event. Therefore, it's not clear that market crashes are the result of some unanticipated bad news that shocks investors.
The real estate market could collapse if banks and hedge funds returned to investing in risky financial products. These derivatives were a major cause of the financial crisis. Banks sliced up mortgages and resold them in mortgage-backed securities. These securities were a bigger business than the mortgages themselves. That's why banks sold mortgages to just about anyone. They needed them to support the derivatives. They sliced them up so that bad mortgages were hidden in bundles with good ones. Then when borrowers defaulted, all the derivatives were suspected of being bad.
US data remains strong. Manufacturing conditions remained strong in the New York and Philadelphia regions and the Markit manufacturing PMI rose, the Conference Board’s leading indicator is continuing to rise, and jobless claims fell further. Housing-related data, like starts, permits and sales, doesn’t have a lot of momentum but it’s consistent with a flat/modest contribution to economic growth and at least it’s a long way from the pre-GFC housing boom that went bust.

During this growth boom, the SEC found it increasingly difficult to prevent shady IPOs and conglomerates from proliferating. In early 1987, the SEC conducted numerous investigations of illegal insider trading, which created a wary stance among many investors. At the same time, inflation and overheating became a concern due to the high rate of economic and credit growth. The Federal Reserve rapidly raised short term interest rates to temper inflation, which dampened some of stock investors’ enthusiasm. Many institutional trading firms began to utilize portfolio insurance to protect against further stock dips. Portfolio insurance is a hedging strategy that uses stock index futures to cushion equity portfolios against broad stock market declines. As interest rates rose, many institutional money managers scrambled to hedge their portfolios at the same time. On October 19th 1987, the stock index futures market was flooded with billions of dollars worth of sell orders within minutes, causing both the futures and stock markets to crash. In addition, many common stock investors attempted to sell simultaneously, which completely overwhelmed the stock market.

Buy when others sell. Historically, stocks rebound much higher than their price levels just before a bear market. This was the case in 1987, 1990, 2001, and in 2008 (just after the Great Recession began) after severe market collapses in those years. By contributing regularly to your 401k plan, your IRA plan and your stock and mutual fund investments, you're "buying at the dip," as Wall Street traders like to say. That means you're buying when prices are low, thus giving you significantly more bang for your investment buck. Remember, stocks become overpriced as bull markets mature. They become cheap in bear markets.
It truly does appear that the elements for a “perfect storm” are beginning to come together.  We have been enjoying a period of relative stability for so long that many Americans have allowed themselves to become lulled into a state of complacency.  That is a huge mistake, because all along we have been steamrolling toward disaster, and nothing has been done to alter our course.
Since traditional statistical methods are perhaps less appropriate for extreme markets, other paths of examination may be more fruitful. For example the Santa Fe Institute is examining links between different disciplines. Potentially a market crash may have more in common with a growing pile of sand, than how the same market performs outside of a crash environment. When a grain of sand is added to an existing pile so the pile grows ever higher. Most of the time, one more grain will cause the pile to grow in height by a just fraction. However, at other times the addition of a single grain will lead to a collapse and in turn that collapse may be small, large or potentially even massive. Some researchers believe that better understanding these sorts of events hold the key for a better understanding of extreme market events, because today many traditional models simply fail to hold up.
Secondly, he says, higher interest rates raise borrowing costs for consumers and companies, so auto loans and mortgages become more expensive and companies have a harder time tapping the debt market. "Clearly, higher rates are not good for housing or auto sales," says Ed Yardeni, chief investment strategist at Yardeni Research. And if sales of these big-ticket items slow, so does the broader economy.
Our deficit and debt as numbers alone are kind of meaningless.. It only matters relative to other countries and relative to our GDP. For better or worse current economic theory under globalization seems to expect every country to grow and amass more debt while keeping those two values in some kind of balance. So it is hard even for an economist to say how relevant the size of the number is. And a lot of that theory is working out rather poorly for many Euro countries right now.

That being said, the Buffett Indicator, while it's not a flawless indicator, does tend to peak during hot stock markets and bottom during weak markets. And as a general rule, if the indicator falls below 80%-90% or so, it has historically signaled that stocks are cheap. On the other hand, levels significantly higher than 100% can indicate stocks are expensive.


Though the Trump administration has looked to tariffs to help balance out a huge trade deficit with China, these added costs on aluminum, steel, and potentially other Chinese goods, could come back to haunt businesses and U.S. consumers. As material costs rise as a result of tariffs, businesses have little choice but to pass along these higher costs to consumers. That will likely result in less consumption, and an eventual pullback in spending from businesses, which may lead to a borderline recession.


Stock markets dropped today as trading closed with the DOW down 500 points more. The NASDAQ fell a further 70 points and and S&P about 30 points. There’s a lot of guessing as to what’s happening such as pessimistic earnings season reports, China trade worries, and multinational corporate performance (cheap labor market access) in doubt going forward as 2019 nears.
The benchmark S&P BSE Sensex swung from a 1 percent gain to a drop of as much as 3 percent -- its wildest intraday move in more than four years -- before closing with a 0.8 percent loss. Friday’s declines showed that investors remain jittery about Indian financial shares after a recent default by Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Ltd. shook confidence in the sector.
Last but not least, many of the purchasers of these MBS were not just other banks. They were individual investors, pension funds, and hedge funds. That spread the risk throughout the economy. Hedge funds used these derivatives as collateral to borrow money. That created higher returns in a bull market, but magnified the impact of any downturn. The Securities and Exchange Commission did not regulate hedge funds, so no one knew how much of it was going on.

Hi Christine, I can’t offer advice. There is a lot of risk in 2020. Trudeau may botch the trade negotiations and that could could start a Toronto slide. Without the auto sector, Whitby and Oshawa could get hit hard. Good thing is Trudeau could be gone next year and the Americans might listen to a new conservative government. Harper’s already visited the back door at the white house. From here to 2020 could be rough in Canada. Good luck with your sale.


There are numerous housing crash factors discussed below from geopolitical events to trade related to rising interest rates, the end of stimulus spending, and excessively high home prices.  A trade war with China could be crash factor #1.  Will debt, deficits, and tariff barriers be the issues that start bursting housing bubbles? Will it be political opposition by the democrats and meddling within the US?
During this growth boom, the SEC found it increasingly difficult to prevent shady IPOs and conglomerates from proliferating. In early 1987, the SEC conducted numerous investigations of illegal insider trading, which created a wary stance among many investors. At the same time, inflation and overheating became a concern due to the high rate of economic and credit growth. The Federal Reserve rapidly raised short term interest rates to temper inflation, which dampened some of stock investors’ enthusiasm. Many institutional trading firms began to utilize portfolio insurance to protect against further stock dips. Portfolio insurance is a hedging strategy that uses stock index futures to cushion equity portfolios against broad stock market declines. As interest rates rose, many institutional money managers scrambled to hedge their portfolios at the same time. On October 19th 1987, the stock index futures market was flooded with billions of dollars worth of sell orders within minutes, causing both the futures and stock markets to crash. In addition, many common stock investors attempted to sell simultaneously, which completely overwhelmed the stock market.
But what about the risk of a property price crash as suggested by the recent Sixty Minutes report? Several things are worth noting in relation to this: predictions of a 30-50% property price crash have been wheeled out regularly in Australian media over the last decade including on Sixty Minutes; the anecdotes of mortgage stress and defaults don’t line up well with actual data showing low levels of arrears; borrowers have already been moving from interest only to principle and interest loans over the last few years, without a lot of stress; and the 40-45% price fall call on the program was “if everything turns against us”. Our view remains that in the absence of much higher interest rates, much higher unemployment, or a multi-year supply surge (none of which are expected) a property crash is unlikely. But the risks are now greater than when property crash calls started to be made a decade or so ago and so deeper price falls than the 15% top to bottom fall we expect for Sydney and Melbourne are a high risk. This is particularly so given the risk that post the Royal Commission bank lending standards become excessively tight, negative gearing is restricted and the capital gains tax discount is halved after a change in government in Canberra. There is also a big risk that FOMO (fear of missing out) becomes FONGO (fear of not getting out) for some.
Futures and options markets are hedging and risk transfer markets. The report references a series of bona fide hedging transactions, totaling 75,000 contracts, entered into by an institutional asset manager to hedge a portion of the risk in its $75 billion investment portfolio in response to global economic events and the fundamentally deteriorating market conditions that day. The 75,000 contracts represented 1.3% of the total E-Mini S&P 500 volume of 5.7 million contracts on May 6 and less than 9% of the volume during the time period in which the orders were executed. The prevailing market sentiment was evident well before these orders were placed, and the orders, as well as the manner in which they were entered, were both legitimate and consistent with market practices. These hedging orders were entered in relatively small quantities and in a manner designed to dynamically adapt to market liquidity by participating in a target percentage of 9% of the volume executed in the market. As a result of the significant volumes traded in the market, the hedge was completed in approximately twenty minutes, with more than half of the participant's volume executed as the market rallied—not as the market declined. Additionally, the aggregate size of this participant's orders was not known to other market participants.

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Tech stocks, this year’s best-performing industry, will be in the spotlight, as executives from Twitter, Facebook and Google’s parent Alphabet begin testimony to Congress on Wednesday while Trump blasts about antitrust. Friday’s monthly payrolls data precedes a policy meeting by Federal Reserve later in the month, when the central bank is expected to raise interest rates for an eighth time since 2015.
These five tech and consumer service giants have accounted for a significant portion of the S&P 500’s and Invesco QQQ Trust’s gains in recent years. Further, data from Bloomberg finds that the original FANG stocks (minus Apple) are slated to grow sales at an average rate of 36% in the second quarter, which is four times faster than the average S&P 500 company.  However, the FAANG stocks aren’t impervious to a change of heart.
The heads of the SEC and CFTC often point out that they are running an IT museum. They have photographic evidence to prove it—the highest-tech background that The New York Times (on September 21, 2010) could find for a photo of Gregg Berman, the SEC’s point man on the Flash, was a corner with five PCs, a Bloomberg, a printer, a fax, and three TVs on the wall with several large clocks.
Job one in the midst of a stock market crash is to be aware of your own exposure to the market. Are you highly leveraged as a margin investor? Is your investment portfolio overly weighted with riskier growth stocks or other more-speculative stocks? Has your personal financial situation changed significantly over the course of a 24-hour market collapse?
Fifth, growth in the rest of the world will likely slow down – more so as other countries will see fit to retaliate against US protectionism. China must slow its growth to deal with overcapacity and excessive leverage; otherwise a hard landing will be triggered. And already-fragile emerging markets will continue to feel the pinch from protectionism and tightening monetary conditions in the US.

I don’t even know how many records I own, but it’s in the thousands. I have records, tapes, CDs, and computer files going all the way back to the 1880s. I even have one recording from 1869. A scientist was studying sound waves and recorded a woman singing “Clare De Lune.” He recorded it as wavy lines on a soot-covered paper. Someone recently scanned it and converted it back into sound. It doesn’t sound very good, but it’s amazing that you could retrieve sound from marks on a sooty piece of paper.
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Buffett is being optimistic. In fact, if history can offer any lessons, note that the Dow Jones 100 years ago, in 1917, stood at 1,328 points. That would be less than 20 times the current number. But Buffett probably doesn’t have to worry too much about the events that may or may not occur in the 22nd century. Now, as far as the present is concerned, you can be sure that Buffett chooses his words and predictions more carefully, as it were.

The New York Times then noted, "Automatic computerized traders on the stock market shut down as they detected the sharp rise in buying and selling".[25] As computerized high-frequency traders exited the stock market, the resulting lack of liquidity "caused shares of some prominent companies like Procter & Gamble and Accenture to trade down as low as a penny or as high as $100,000".[25] These extreme prices also resulted from "market internalizers",[44][45][46] firms that usually trade with customer orders from their own inventory instead of sending those orders to exchanges, "routing 'most, if not all,' retail orders to the public markets—a flood of unusual selling pressure that sucked up more dwindling liquidity".[26]


This is especially true for income-focused stocks, such as real estate investment trusts (REITs). Investors buy these stocks specifically for their dividend yields, and rising market interest rates put downward pressure on these stocks. As a simplified illustration, if a 10-year Treasury note yields 3% and a certain REIT yields 5%, it may seem worth the extra risk to income-seeking investors to choose the REIT.
In finance, Black Monday refers to Monday, October 19, 1987, when stock markets around the world crashed. The crash began in Hong Kong and spread west to Europe, hitting the United States after other markets had already sustained significant declines. The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) fell exactly 508 points to 1,738.74 (22.61%).[1] In Australia and New Zealand, the 1987 crash is also referred to as "Black Tuesday" because of the time zone difference.
A year before its demise, Lehman's leverage ratio was a massive 30-to-1, which economists consider as being an extremely high risk. The investment banking giant had $22 billion in equity to back $691 billion in total assets. At that point, even a minuscule drop in asset value of 3% was enough to send one of Wall Street's giants careening into oblivion.
For the rest of the 1930s, beginning on March 15, 1933, the Dow began to slowly regain the ground it had lost during the 1929 crash and the three years following it. The largest percentage increases of the Dow Jones occurred during the early and mid-1930s. In late 1937, there was a sharp dip in the stock market, but prices held well above the 1932 lows. The market would not return to the peak closing of September 3, 1929, until November 23, 1954.[17][18]
1st, sorry you lost your home. That said, had you read your loan documents you’d have seen the language advising you that loans are bought and sold on the secondary market all the time and the originator did not NEED your permission to do so. The sale of your loan to another bank, investor, Fannie, etc., had no effect on your payment, interest rate, term, etc. So the sale of your loan, regardless of how many times it was repackaged and sold, did not cause you to lose your house. If along the way the new holder of your “note” did not have an auto pay option, that was up to you follow up on and find out exactly HOW/WHERE they wanted you to make your payment. Again, sorry you lost your home, but the sale of mortgage backed securities (your loan) has no effect on the Payor (you) as terms cannot be altered (now THATS something they would need your approval on). The only way an eventual noteholder could foreclose on you is if you failed to make your payments as required…Did you stop making payments for some reason? A lot of good people got hurt in the crisis but there seems to be more to this than a repeated sale of the original note…I’ve been in my present home 26 years, have had several mortgages sold and sold again with no issues…most important thing is to confirm with your present lender that they had, in fact sold your note and the party telling you they now own your note are, in fact, who they say they are. Best of luck.
Other scientists disagree with this notion, and note that market crashes are indeed “special.” Professor Didier Sornette, for example, a physicist at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, argued that a market crash is not simply a scaled-up version of a normal down day but a true outlier to market behavior. In fact, he claims that ahead of critical points the market starts giving off some clues. His work focuses on interpreting these clues and identify when a bubble may be forming and, crucially, when it ends.

So aim to build a war chest for a future market meltdown by accumulating cash. It's probably best not to overdo it, though, because the market may not crash for another few years, in which time all the cash you've amassed will not have been growing for you in stocks. You might just accumulate enough cash to establish meaningful positions in a few stocks. In general, it can be good to have no more than 10% of your overall net worth in cash for investments.
The month began with more bad news. The Labor Department reported that the economy had lost a staggering 240,000 jobs in October. The AIG bailout grew to $150 billion. Treasury announced it was using part of the $700 billion bailouts to buy preferred stocks in the nations' banks. The Big Three automakers asked for a federal bailout. By November 20, 2008, the Dow had plummeted to 7,552.29, a new low. But the stock market crash of 2008 was not over yet.
The loopholes in the accounts of the companies are believed to be a major reason for the crash. The companies weren’t honest about their dealings in the company accounts and hid debts which affected the market. Therefore the rule of CEO and CFO accountability was laid. Under these regulations, all the statements needed to be duly signed by the CEOs or CFOs of the respective companies. That way frauds and loopholes could easily be made out. Also, the prosecution was made stricter. The penalties that would result from frauds or any illegal activity in trading were increased. This was meant to control the losses that the market was suffering.
At the same time, affordable housing has plummeted. In 2010, 11 percent of rental units across the country were affordable for low income households. By 2016, that had dropped to just 4 percent. The shortage is the worst in cities where home prices have soared. For example, Colorado's stock of affordable rentals fell from 32.4 percent to only 7.5 percent since 2010. 
As you can see from the numbers Dennis has on the housing market, things are much better than they were before the last crash. Lending guidelines are much tougher no matter what you hear. I see posts on Facebook all the time about how people can get low-money-down loans now, and that means the housing crash is coming. Low-money-down loans have been available for decades, and that is not what caused the housing crash. Really bad loans to people who should not buy houses is what caused the housing crisis. Those loans do not exist anymore, as you can see by the data Dennis provided. Yes, it is possible to get a loan with less than a 600 credit score, but very few people are actually getting those loans. When you look at the housing market, you need to look at the real numbers of how many houses are being built, what kind of loans people are getting, and how much house people can afford. Houses are not being built like they were before. The loans people are getting are much higher quality, and the market is much more stable than it was before.
The 1929 crash brought the Roaring Twenties to a halt.[35] As tentatively expressed by economic historian Charles P. Kindleberger, in 1929, there was no lender of last resort effectively present, which, if it had existed and been properly exercised, would have been key in shortening the business slowdown that normally follows financial crises.[32] The crash marked the beginning of widespread and long-lasting consequences for the United States. Historians still debate the question: did the 1929 Crash spark The Great Depression,[36] or did it merely coincide with the bursting of a loose credit-inspired economic bubble? Only 16% of American households were invested in the stock market within the United States during the period leading up to the depression, suggesting that the crash carried somewhat less of a weight in causing the depression.
On Friday, September 19, the Dow ended the week at 11,388.44. It was only slightly below its Monday open of 11,416.37. The Fed established the Asset-Backed Commercial Paper Money Market Mutual Fund Liquidity Facility. It loaned $122.8 billion to banks to buy commercial paper from money market funds. The Fed's announcement confirmed that credit markets were partially frozen and in panic mode.
To be clear, this isn't an exhaustive list of things that could potentially cause a stock market crash. And it's likely that more than one of these factors could combine to cause a crash. The 2008 crash, for one, was primarily caused by excessive speculation that caused a bubble in real estate prices, along with excessive leverage taken on by both consumers and financial institutions, as well as investor panic after banks started to fail.

“My sense is that the bottom that we were unable to find, chances are that we have found it. Often things tend to panic and sell of, unless it’s a black swan event My sense is that whatever information is there is not so serious; may be a couple of stocks may remain dicey but overall if there is no systemic risk, what we are doing is we are buying back nifty now; because it’s not like the whole world is coming to an end May be there is a problem; it can be contained; but once the news is out that news is irrelevant. Given that we are now near the 200-DMA, we could now have that sustainable rally. There is no value in worrying about what’s gone wrong. Try to buy because prices tend to factor in most things. My sense is that by the close we should recover some more Buy the good quality NBFCs, such as Bajaj Finance, L&T finance I would be a buyer now that the fall is already over,” investment advisor Ashwini Gujral told CNBC TV18.
Our deficit and debt as numbers alone are kind of meaningless.. It only matters relative to other countries and relative to our GDP. For better or worse current economic theory under globalization seems to expect every country to grow and amass more debt while keeping those two values in some kind of balance. So it is hard even for an economist to say how relevant the size of the number is. And a lot of that theory is working out rather poorly for many Euro countries right now.
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