The panic began again on Black Monday (October 28), with the market closing down 12.8 percent. On Black Tuesday (October 29) more than 16 million shares were traded. The Dow Jones Industrial Average lost another 12 percent and closed at 198—a drop of 183 points in less than two months. Prime securities tumbled like the issues of bogus gold mines. General Electric fell from 396 on September 3 to 210 on October 29. American Telephone and Telegraph dropped 100 points. DuPont fell from a summer high of 217 to 80, United States Steel from 261 to 166, Delaware and Hudson from 224 to 141, and Radio Corporation of America (RCA) common stock from 505 to 26. Political and financial leaders at first affected to treat the matter as a mere spasm in the market, vying with one another in reassuring statements. President Hoover and Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon led the way with optimistic predictions that business was “fundamentally sound” and that a great revival of prosperity was “just around the corner.” Although the Dow Jones Industrial Average nearly reached the 300 mark again in 1930, it sank rapidly in May 1930. Another 20 years would pass before the Dow average regained enough momentum to surpass the 200-point level.

The Roaring Twenties, the decade that followed World War I that led to the crash,[3] was a time of wealth and excess. Building on post-war optimism, rural Americans migrated to the cities in vast numbers throughout the decade with the hopes of finding a more prosperous life in the ever-growing expansion of America's industrial sector.[4] While the American cities prospered, the overproduction of agricultural produce created widespread financial despair among American farmers throughout the decade.[4] This would later be blamed as one of the key factors that led to the 1929 stock market crash.[5]
As you can see, there is more to preparing for a market crash than making a stock market crash prediction. “Experts” predict crashes all the time, and most of the time they get it wrong. If you listen to all these crash predictions, you will end up losing out on the upside. And yet, you should never be in a position where a crash will wipe out your portfolio or brokerage account. To prepare for a crash, you should make sure your portfolio is diversified, and that you don’t have too much of it allocated to high beta and growth stocks.

Stock up on supplies.  Make sure you are prepped. If you’re behind on your preparedness efforts and need to do this quickly, you can order buckets of emergency food just to have some on hand. (Learn how to build an emergency food supply using freeze dried food HERE) Hit the grocery store or wholesale club and stock up there, too, on  your way home.


This is a remarkable passage because it resembles closely what one would read in an opinion-based analysis of a market event. The confusing illusion, of course, is that hindsight narratives of this kind could offer anything towards avoiding, let alone preventing, future disasters. In reality, no amount of knowledge of a sandpile system can possibly produce a usable forecast of the size and location of a major avalanche. It may be the same with a stock market crash.
“The accepted version of history is that the Federal Reserve was created to stabilize our economy… [but] even the most naive student must sense a grave contradiction between this cherished view and the System’s actual performance,” wrote G. Edward Griffin in his book The Creature from Jekyll Island. “Since its inception, it has presided over the crashes of 1921 and 1929; the Great Depression of ’29 to ’39; recessions in ’53, ’57, ’69, ’75, and ’81; a stock market ‘Black Monday’ in ’87; and a 1000% inflation which has destroyed 90% of the dollar’s purchasing power.”

In a 2011 article that appeared on the Wall Street Journal on the eve of the anniversary of the 2010 "flash crash", it was reported that high-frequency traders were then less active in the stock market. Another article in the journal said trades by high-frequency traders had decreased to 53% of stock-market trading volume, from 61% in 2009.[81] Former Delaware senator Edward E. Kaufman and Michigan senator Carl Levin published a 2011 op-ed in The New York Times a year after the Flash Crash, sharply critical of what they perceived to be the SEC's apparent lack of action to prevent a recurrence.[82]


The American mobilization for World War II at the end of 1941 moved approximately ten million people out of the civilian labor force and into the war.[28] World War II had a dramatic effect on many parts of the economy, and may have hastened the end of the Great Depression in the United States.[29] Government-financed capital spending accounted for only 5 percent of the annual U.S. investment in industrial capital in 1940; by 1943, the government accounted for 67 percent of U.S. capital investment.[29]
Buy when others sell. Historically, stocks rebound much higher than their price levels just before a bear market. This was the case in 1987, 1990, 2001, and in 2008 (just after the Great Recession began) after severe market collapses in those years. By contributing regularly to your 401k plan, your IRA plan and your stock and mutual fund investments, you're "buying at the dip," as Wall Street traders like to say. That means you're buying when prices are low, thus giving you significantly more bang for your investment buck. Remember, stocks become overpriced as bull markets mature. They become cheap in bear markets.

Secondly, he says, higher interest rates raise borrowing costs for consumers and companies, so auto loans and mortgages become more expensive and companies have a harder time tapping the debt market. "Clearly, higher rates are not good for housing or auto sales," says Ed Yardeni, chief investment strategist at Yardeni Research. And if sales of these big-ticket items slow, so does the broader economy.


At first, while the regulatory agencies and the United States Congress announced investigations into the crash,[16] no specific reason for the six hundred point plunge was identified. Investigators focused on a number of possible causes, including a confluence of computer-automated trades, or possibly an error by human traders. By the first weekend, regulators had discounted the possibility of trader error and focused on automated trades conducted on exchanges other than the NYSE. However, CME Group, a large futures exchange, stated that, insofar as stock index futures traded on CME Group were concerned, its investigation found no evidence for this or that high-frequency trading played a role, and in fact concluded that automated trading had contributed to market stability during the period of the crash.[17] Others speculate that an intermarket sweep order may have played a role in triggering the crash.[18]
"They're going to stop putting money into the stock market by that same function, and you're getting into the end of the year," Ader said. Pension funds for the S&P 1500 are now funded at an average of 91 percent for the first time in years. As many funds are legacy funds, strategists expect them to reduce risk because they want to secure their funding levels.
For a few years now, the reason for fast rising home prices have been blamed on tight inventory. After seeing what has happened in Toronto, I’m starting to question these claims of tight inventory in almost all major housing markets (US and globally). In Toronto, within two weeks, they went from having very low inventory to having a 50% increase. Where did all of their extra inventory come from? Could the same happen to other major cities as well? It’s possible that there are low inventory in so many places due to aggressive investor speculation, which is then causing locals to panic buy. Very similar to the irrational exuberance happening before the housing crash 10 years ago. Something can trigger these property investors to sell all at the same time, and cause buyers to pull back, similar to what’s happening in Toronto. Another housing crash is possible, and it doesn’t have to be caused by bad loans like last time.
In this book, published in 2003, Talbott predicted a housing crash that would start around 2005. In fact, the peak of the housing market was the summer of 2005. It took longer for the fall in prices to take down the whole economy. Talbott explained in an easy-to-understand way why it was inevitable that housing prices would fall and crash the economy. The advice over what to do about it wasn't as good as the prediction.
If the market went down, is it because one company changed its business model or its forecasts? Because a mutual fund changed its strategy? Because a glitch triggered a wave of selling? Because yesterday it went up a lot and people decided to take their profits and invest elsewhere? Because one large investor decided to cash out on high valuations? Because another round of stock options for Facebook employees matured, and they sold? On the whole, we can't say why the market went down today is due to a single reason.
However, there are a few qualifications to this: there is some risk that the migrant intake may be cut; while accelerating population growth in Queensland will support Brisbane property prices, population growth is slowing in NSW and Victoria so it’s becoming a bit less supportive of property prices in those states; and the supply of new dwellings has been catching up to strong population growth so undersupply is giving way to oversupply in some areas. The risk of the latter is highlighted by the continuing very high residential crane count which is still dominated by Sydney and Melbourne, indicating that there is still of lot of supply to hit the market ahead. Out of interest, Australia’s total residential crane count alone of 528 cranes is way above the total crane count (ie residential and non-residential) in the US of 300 and Canada of 123!
Lana, a lot of people are talking housing crash in many markets, but that could take the whole economy down. Even with a crash, it would still be tough for buyers. The right approach to bring prices down is more housing supply. The governments should provide tax breaks and other incentives for housing development and legislation which promotes new housing projects. Good finding a place you can afford.
Is funny, the tropical depression is well away from us but we are getting an extremely wet weather system over the state, they call it an anti-cyclone, whatever that is, all i know is i could use some sunshine, been raining for weeks, only one or two days here and there that didnt rain. Too damn wet, crops rotting in the field, at least the market crops, oh well, such is life as a farmer!
These bold plans have led the rating agency Moody’s to downgrade Italy’s sovereign debt to one notch above junk.  Uncertainty in Italy is a major geopolitical factor weighing on global sentiment.  Investors are rightly concerned about the Rome-Brussels stand-off, given that Italy is the Eurozone’s third-largest economy and its debt is held by every major bank in Europe—and most in the U.S. As interest rates rise in Italy, the prospect of insolvency rises alongside.
In my previous article entitled “Why Are So Many People Talking About The Potential For A Stock Market Crash In October?”, I noted that this has been the month with the most market volatility ever since the Dow was first established.  Absent some kind of major event, the stock market usually gets kind of sleepy around Thanksgiving and does not really spring to life again until after the new year has begun.
In March 2017, William Poole, a senior fellow at the Cato Institute, warned of another subprime crisis. He warned that 35 percent of Fannie Mae's loans required mortgage insurance. That's about the level in 2006. In some ways, these loans are worse. Fannie and Freddie lowered their definition of subprime from 660 to 620. The banks are no longer calling borrowers with scores between 620 and 660 subprime. Poole was the head of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas who warned of the subprime crisis in 2005.

On Black Monday, the Dow Jones Industrial Average fell 38.33 points to 260, a drop of 12.8%. The deluge of selling overwhelmed the ticker tape system that normally gave investors the current prices of their shares. Telephone lines and telegraphs were clogged and were unable to cope. This information vacuum only led to more fear and panic. The technology of the New Era, previously much celebrated by investors, now served to deepen their suffering.
You have to pay ~2.5-4% in unavoidable ownership fees as an owner even with your mortgage paid off (property taxes, insurance, maintenance, amortized transaction costs, etc). Even if we’re generous and assume that’s just 2.5%, that means all that that equity is only making you 2.5% (1.5% in Vancouver) in rent savings. If you don’t have the equity, you have to pay more than than to borrow it from the bank (or take on the risk of paying more). If you do and you invest it, then that can be substantial savings.
Using a simple options calculator (like that available at options-price.com) we can calculate how our put options purchased in the example above would perform after a 20% decline in the span of just a month. In this hypothetical example, SPY drops to 175 and implied volatility rises to 55 (for this example I took the VIX level of 45 in October 2002, as suggested by Spitznagel, and added 10 points for 10% out-of-the-money put options). Our puts have gone from $9 each in value to $328.10. We own 55 of them so they are now worth just over $18,000 in total.
One of the big drivers of the stock market since 2008 has been monetary policy: in specific, the Quantitative Easing program of the Federal Reserve and the low interest rates. While the former put a lot of new money into bonds (keeping those interest rates low), the latter kept the world's least risky investment paying out very little. As a result, a lot of money chased better returns in the stock market.

"Panic is already starting to set in, which is kind of incredible when you actually think about it," said Michael Yoshikami, CEO of Destination Wealth Management. "The S&P is trading where it was in sometime in December. So it's not like we're retracing an entire 12 months of returns here. I think investors are just understandably nervous. It probably is programmed trading kicking in at this point."
"I've been in retailing 30 years and I have never seen any category of goods get on a self-destruct pattern like this", a Service Merchandise executive told The New York Times in June 1983.[12] The price war was so severe that in September Coleco CEO Arnold Greenberg welcomed rumors of an IBM 'Peanut' home computer because "IBM is a company that knows how to make money". "I look back a year or two in the videogame field, or the home-computer field", Greenberg added, "how much better everyone was, when most people were making money, rather than very few".[15] Companies reduced production in the middle of the year because of weak demand even as prices remained low, causing shortages as sales suddenly rose during the Christmas season;[16] only the Commodore 64 was widely available, with an estimated more than 500,000 computers sold during Christmas.[17] The 99/4A was such a disaster for TI, that the company's stock immediately rose by 25% after the company discontinued it and exited the home-computer market in late 1983.[18] JC Penney announced in December 1983 that it would soon no longer sell home computers, because of the combination of low supply and low prices.[19]
The first microcomputers such as the Altair 8800 and Apple I were marketed to a niche of electronics hobbyists as most required assembly from a kit. In 1977, factory-assembled machines with BASIC in ROM became available, including the "Trio of '77": the Apple II, Commodore PET, and TRS-80 Model I. The latter two retailed for under $1,000, but lacked game joysticks and high-resolution color video.[5] Third-party developers created games for all of these platforms. The TRS-80 benefited from Radio Shack's retail stores, which displayed computers and accessories locally in an era where many personal computers were mail-ordered from manufacturers.
Thus, Buffett has not said anything specific to the effect of “the stock market will crash in 2018.” He doesn’t have to make any such statement. An expert prediction is just that: a prediction. The smarter the expert, the less tendency there is to trust forecasts and prophecies. But if you use the expert prediction as a guide to understand what’s happening, you can detect trends. Thus, you can prepare and take appropriate actions that will not leave you stranded. If the negative predictions do materialize, you can take comfort in the fact you were ready. If they don’t, you can enjoy the favorable outcome with everyone else.
It used a hodge-podge menu of about $150 billion in short- and long-term debt, and $180 billion in repurchase, or "repo" agreements, as collateral on short-term repo loans. Once investors began doubting the quality of the collateral Lehman was using, they largely stopped allowing the company to roll over the repo loans into the next 24-hour period, and began asking for their money back -- in full.
Benchmark equity indices crashed on Friday after opening on a positive note. At 1:07 pm, the S&P BSE Sensex tanked 672.38 points or 1.81 per cent to trade at 36,448.84. The broader Nifty50 was trading at 11,042.55,  down 191.80 points or 1.71 per cent. Yes Bank was the top loser in the Sensex pack today by tumbling as much as 34.03 per cent in early trade today after the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) asked its managing director and CEO Rana Kapoor to step down after an extended term till January 31, 2019.
Now the stock market needed to be revived. And hence lots of fresh reforms were started to stabilize the market once again. As already mentioned one supposed reason for the stock market crash of 2000 was the advent of the internet and online trading in such a huge number. To see that just about anyone doesn’t jump into stock trading a rule was formed for these Daytraders. Going by these rules, an individual had to have a minimum of $25000 to their name in any bank account. That would ensure that the person is not insolvent. Other than this very basic rule, lots of other rules were laid which could restrict the previous marketing methods which led to losses.

The bigger they come, the harder they fall.  Currently, we are in the terminal phase of an “everything bubble” which has had ten years to grow.  It is the biggest financial bubble that our country has ever seen, and experts are warning that when it finally bursts we will experience an economic downturn that is even worse than the Great Depression of the 1930s.  Of course many of us in the alternative media have been warning about what is coming for quite some time, but now even many in the mainstream media have jumped on the bandwagon.  The Economist is one of the most prominent globalist mouthpieces in the entire world, and so I was stunned when I came across one of their articles earlier today that was entitled “Another economic downturn is just a matter of time”.  When the alternative media and globalist media outlets are both preaching economic doom, that is a very clear sign that big trouble is imminent.


Even after the turnaround began in March 2009, it's not as if investors knew the bear had run its course. The S&P dropped by more than 15% in 2010 and by almost 20% in 2011. We know now that these setbacks were temporary speed bumps (albeit scary ones) within a new bull market. But investors back then didn't have the advantage of being able to consult a stock chart, as we can today, that showed them how it all played out.
After Black Monday, regulators overhauled trade-clearing protocols to bring uniformity to all prominent market products. They also developed new rules, known as "trading curbs" or colloquially as circuit breakers, allowing exchanges to temporarily halt trading in instances of exceptionally large price declines in some indexes; for instance, the DJIA.[15]

That being said, the Buffett Indicator, while it's not a flawless indicator, does tend to peak during hot stock markets and bottom during weak markets. And as a general rule, if the indicator falls below 80%-90% or so, it has historically signaled that stocks are cheap. On the other hand, levels significantly higher than 100% can indicate stocks are expensive.
In other words, bear markets are part of investing. You can’t avoid them – but you can make sure a bear market doesn’t wipe you out. Rule number one is to diversify, and periodically rebalance your portfolio. When a correction, stock market crash or bear market comes along, the stocks that fall the most are those that are trading at the highest valuations, those with the most debt, and those with the lowest margins.

It truly does appear that the elements for a “perfect storm” are beginning to come together.  We have been enjoying a period of relative stability for so long that many Americans have allowed themselves to become lulled into a state of complacency.  That is a huge mistake, because all along we have been steamrolling toward disaster, and nothing has been done to alter our course.
Stock market downturn of 2002	9 Oct 2002		Downturn in stock prices during 2002 in stock exchanges across the United States, Canada, Asia, and Europe. After recovering from lows reached following the September 11 attacks, indices slid steadily starting in March 2002, with dramatic declines in July and September leading to lows last reached in 1997 and 1998. See stock market downturn of 2002.	

The effect was worse in the United Kingdom, particularly on the London Stock Exchange's FT 30, which lost 73% of its value during the crash.[4] From a rate of 5.1% real GDP growth in 1972, the UK went into recession in 1974, with GDP falling by 1.1%.[1] At the time, the UK's property market was going through a major crisis, and a secondary banking crisis forced the Bank of England to bail out a number of lenders.[5] In the United Kingdom, the crash ended after the rent freeze was lifted on 19 December 1974, allowing a readjustment of property prices; over the following year, stock prices rose by 150%. The definitive market low for the FT30 Index (a forerunner of the FTSE100 today) came on 6 January 1975, when the index closed at 146 (having reached a nadir of 145.8 intra-day). The market then practically doubled in just over 3 months.[5] However, unlike in the United States, inflation continued to rise, to 25% in 1975, giving way to the era of stagflation. The Hong Kong Hang Seng Index also fell from 1,800 in early 1973 to close to 300.[6]
Whether Professor Sornette is right or not that a critical point can be anticipated, the entire concept of market self-organization deals a blow to the “fundamental” approach to investing in equity markets – the idea that opinion-based research can lead to investment success when it seems quite apparent that outcomes cannot be predicted even when initial conditions are known.
Global cues: The subdued Asian markets have also weighed on market sentiment. Brokers said weakness was seen in most Asian markets as high US yield and good economic data led to fear that investors would move to the US, dampened trading sentiments there. Japan's Nikkei was trading 0.46 per cent down at 23,999 as investors took profit from its recent rally to a 27-year high. Meanwhile, Hong Kong's Hang Seng dipped over 1.50 per cent at 26,628.64.

You have to pay ~2.5-4% in unavoidable ownership fees as an owner even with your mortgage paid off (property taxes, insurance, maintenance, amortized transaction costs, etc). Even if we’re generous and assume that’s just 2.5%, that means all that that equity is only making you 2.5% (1.5% in Vancouver) in rent savings. If you don’t have the equity, you have to pay more than than to borrow it from the bank (or take on the risk of paying more). If you do and you invest it, then that can be substantial savings.


In Berkshire's 2017 shareholder letter, Buffett outlined four times when Berkshire stock fell 37% or more, representing what he called "truly major dips." The biggest decline occurred from March 1973 to January 1975, when Berkshire stock declined a whopping 59%. "In the next 53 years our shares (and others) will experience declines resembling those in the table," Buffett said about these four major declines. "No one can tell you when these will happen. The light can at any time go from green to red without pausing at yellow.
On May 6, 2010, U.S. stock markets opened and the Dow was down, and trended that way for most of the day on worries about the debt crisis in Greece. At 2:42 p.m., with the Dow down more than 300 points for the day, the equity market began to fall rapidly, dropping an additional 600 points in 5 minutes for a loss of nearly 1,000 points for the day by 2:47 p.m. Twenty minutes later, by 3:07 p.m., the market had regained most of the 600-point drop.[12]:1
This crisis is rooted in the failure to learn the lessons of 2008 and of every other recession since the Fed’s creation: A secretive central bank should not be allowed to manipulate interest rates and distort economic signals regarding market conditions. Such action leads to malinvestment and an explosion of individual, business, and government debt. This may cause a temporary boom, but the boom soon will be followed by a bust. The only way this cycle can be broken without a major crisis is for Congress both to restore people’s right to use the currency of their choice and to audit and then end the Fed.
Bond strategists have been warning that the second half of September could bring a slight jump in yields because pension funds have been loading up on Treasurys and other bonds before the Sept. 15 deadline for a change in tax laws for corporate sponsors of funds. They believe that buying has depressed yields, which move opposite prices, and the end of those purchases could send yields higher.
The Fed didn't realize a collapse was brewing until March 2007. It realized that hedge fund housing losses could threaten the economy. Throughout the summer, banks became unwilling to lend to each other. They were afraid that they would receive bad MBS in return. Bankers didn't know how much bad debt they had on their books. No one wanted to admit it. If they did, then their credit rating would be lowered. Then, their stock price would fall, and they would be unable to raise more funds to stay in business.

Although this latest round of fiscal and monetary stimulus has not had the anticipated economic effect to date, it has produced a negative effect on the Chinese yuan. Leaving some to wonder if China is finally losing control over its currency. In August 2015, an unexpected devaluation in the yuan led to a capital flight as Chinese companies, citizens and investors sought to protect themselves from further declines in the currency. If the yuan weakens too quickly again—either naturally or by another planned devaluation—this would add even more chaos to the already fragile global markets.
Scenario:  Big money chases few homes, and when governments persist in stopping or not supporting land development, speculators become more confident prices will rise further. Then a politician or FED president steps in with their reactive solution, at the end of the business cycle where employment and profits will begin to drop. Speculators/investors pull out fast, and the slide begins.
In 2011 high-frequency traders moved away from the stock market as there had been lower volatility and volume. The combined average daily trading volume in the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq Stock Market in the first four months of 2011 fell 15% from 2010, to an average of 6.3 billion shares a day. Trading activities declined throughout 2011, with April's daily average of 5.8 billion shares marking the lowest month since May 2008. Sharp movements in stock prices, which were frequent during the period from 2008 to the first half of 2010, were in a decline in the Chicago Board Options Exchange volatility index, the VIX, which fell to its lowest level in April 2011 since July 2007.[83]
In 2011 high-frequency traders moved away from the stock market as there had been lower volatility and volume. The combined average daily trading volume in the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq Stock Market in the first four months of 2011 fell 15% from 2010, to an average of 6.3 billion shares a day. Trading activities declined throughout 2011, with April's daily average of 5.8 billion shares marking the lowest month since May 2008. Sharp movements in stock prices, which were frequent during the period from 2008 to the first half of 2010, were in a decline in the Chicago Board Options Exchange volatility index, the VIX, which fell to its lowest level in April 2011 since July 2007.[83]
On October 19th 1987, $500 billion in market capitalization was evaporated from the Dow Jones stock index. Markets in nearly every country around the world plunged in a similar fashion. When individual investors heard that a massive stock market crash was occurring, they rushed to call their brokers to sell their stocks. This was unsuccessful because each broker had many clients. Many people lost millions of dollars instantly. There are stories of some unstable individuals who had lost large amounts of money who went to their broker’s office with a gun and started shooting. A few brokers were killed despite the fact that they had no control over the market action. The majority of investors who were selling did not even know why they were selling except for the fact that “everyone else was selling.” This emotionally-charged behavior is one of the main reasons that the stock market crashed so dramatically. After the October 19th plunge, many futures and stock exchanges were shut down for a day.
Although we’ve seen more recognition of cryptocurrencies as investment vehicle, they’re still considered high-risk investments. Some see Bitcoin as safe-haven in case of a global crash due to its decentralized nature, the low correlation with the stock markets and the limited supply. Though, there is no reliable data available on how cryptocurrencies behave during a stock market crash. However, if you’re willing to take the risk, adding a small percentage of Bitcoin or cryptocurrency stocks to a diversified portfolio could be a worthwhile investment decision.
Shares in public companies can be traded. The stock market is just like any market. Think of the ASX as Gumtree, but for pieces of ownership of massive companies. When shares change hands, the buyer and seller agree on a price, and we find out the share price. We get a new share price every time a new trade happens (which can be hundreds of times a minute). Over time that share price can go up or down.
Nintendo reserved a large part of NES game revenue for itself by limiting most third-party publishers to only five games per year on its systems (some companies tried to get around this by creating additional company labels like Konami's Ultra Games label); Nintendo would ultimately drop this rule by 1993 with the release of the Super Nintendo Entertainment System.[50] It also required all cartridges to be manufactured by Nintendo, and to be paid for in full before they were manufactured. Cartridges could not be returned to Nintendo, so publishers assumed all the financial risk of selling all units ordered. As a result, some publishers lost more money due to distress sales of remaining inventory at the end of the NES era than they ever earned in profits from sales of the games.
Any of the measurements people quote—any of the stock market indexes which go up and down—are just measurements. They're averages. They're big bundles of numbers all mixed together. In all truth, they only reflect a snapshot of a point in time. They're numbers that stocks happened to end on when trading stopped for the day (or, at least, paused until after hours trading took over).
As a result, while some stores sold new games and machines, most retailers stopped selling video game consoles or reduced their stock significantly, reserving floor or shelf space for other products. This was the most formidable barrier that confronted Nintendo, as it tried to market its Famicom system in the United States. Retailer opposition to video games was directly responsible for causing Nintendo to brand its product an "Entertainment System" rather than a "console", using terms such as "control deck" and "Game Pak", as well as producing a toy robot called R.O.B. to convince toy retailers to allow it in their stores. Furthermore, the design for the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) used a front-loading cartridge slot to mimic how video cassette recorders, popular at that time, were loaded, further pulling the NES away from previous console designs.[35][36][37]
There are a few things to bear in mind here. The first is that investors can overestimate their ability to endure losses during the good times. So be a little more conservative in your allocation than you might think. Also, it's not just about having nerves of steel, it's also about how soon you'll need the money in your portfolio. Even if you are a fearless and disciplined investor, it doesn't matter if you need to spend down a big chunk of your portfolio each year. Regardless of your temperament you'll be a forced seller in a weak market, and therefore, considering having some of your assets more conservatively positioned so that they are a more robust source of cash when you need them can make sense.
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