In July 2008, the crisis threatened government-sponsored agencies Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. They required a government bailout. The Treasury Department guaranteed $25 billion of their loans and bought shares of Fannie's and Freddie's stock. The Federal Housing Authority guaranteed $300 billion in new loans. On July 15, the Dow fell to 10,962.54. It rebounded and remained above 11,000 for the rest of the summer.
For example, we have around 20,000 days of trading date over the last century to help us understand day to day movements in stocks. Yet, for crashes there are only  around ten to twenty events over the past century depending on how a crash is defined, so there’s simply less data to look at. More worryingly, at times of market stress the market's behavior seems to change.
This is a remarkable passage because it resembles closely what one would read in an opinion-based analysis of a market event. The confusing illusion, of course, is that hindsight narratives of this kind could offer anything towards avoiding, let alone preventing, future disasters. In reality, no amount of knowledge of a sandpile system can possibly produce a usable forecast of the size and location of a major avalanche. It may be the same with a stock market crash.

In putting this into practice today, let’s assume we have $100,000 invested in equities currently so we need to buy $500 in 2-month put options (0.5% of $100,000) that are 30% below the current underlying price. SPY trades at 219.4 as I write this so $154 is about 30% beneath this price. A small segment of the October 21 put options chain is below (from Yahoo!Finance). Looking at the ask prices and volume it looks like the 155 puts are a bit more liquid and better priced than the 154 puts. At $9 each (9c times 100 shares) we can buy 55 of the October 155 put options for $495.
Finally, don't think you can avoid market crashes by getting out of stocks before one. That's "market timing," and it rarely works. Index-fund pioneer John Bogle has quipped, "Sure, it'd be great to get out of stocks at the high and jump back in at the low... [but] in 55 years in the business, I not only have never met anybody who knew how to do it, I've never met anybody who had met anybody who knew how to do it."

The Times of London reported that the meltdown was being called the Crash of 2008, and older traders were comparing it with Black Monday in 1987. The fall that week of 21% compared to a 28.3% fall 21 years earlier, but some traders were saying it was worse. "At least then it was a short, sharp, shock on one day. This has been relentless all week."[34] Business Week also referred to the crisis as a "stock market crash" or the "Panic of 2008".[35]


On October 29, William C. Durant joined with members of the Rockefeller family and other financial giants to buy large quantities of stocks to demonstrate to the public their confidence in the market, but their efforts failed to stop the large decline in prices. Due to the massive volume of stocks traded that day, the ticker did not stop running until about 7:45 p.m. The market had lost over $30 billion in the space of two days, including $14 billion on October 29 alone.[15]
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Seventh, US and global equity markets are frothy. Price-to-earnings ratios in the US are 50% above the historic average, private-equity valuations have become excessive, and government bonds are too expensive, given their low yields and negative term premia. And high-yield credit is also becoming increasingly expensive now that the US corporate-leverage rate has reached historic highs.

You can cushion the effects of a crash by allocating to defensive and blue-chip stocks, bonds, gold and cash. Having some cash in your portfolio also allows you to buy back into the market at lower levels. The current stock market is fairly expensive, but there are no signs of an imminent crash. However, that doesn’t mean market conditions can’t change quickly. That’s why you should always be ready for the next crash.

What I see today as concerning has very little to do with Presidents and everything to do with global banking and Fed policy. We have put our selves in a precarious situation with QE in order to massively re-inflate stock values and home values and it has worked beautifully as we have allowed that easing to go undiminished for over 8 years since the meltdown. Now we have to see what happens as we finally attempt to reverse course.
Whether Professor Sornette is right or not that a critical point can be anticipated, the entire concept of market self-organization deals a blow to the “fundamental” approach to investing in equity markets – the idea that opinion-based research can lead to investment success when it seems quite apparent that outcomes cannot be predicted even when initial conditions are known.
I am one of the victims of this mess. Bought new home Jan. 2006. By 2010 my Mortgage was sold and re-sold 4 times without anyone telling me or asking me for my permission. Just got a notice that my monthly auto payment was denied. Checking with the bank there was a new Financial Facility owning my home and wanting that payment. Also, from the first bank with the Mortgage, to the 4th Bank with the Mortgage, each of them, (1 was Natl. City Bank) also sold and went under moving my Accounts with my Money each time. Again without my approval or knowledge. I am now 66 trying to get a Harp Loan with lower interest rate while on Social Security and I’m told I can’t because my loan shows it is only 5 years old and it is really 10 years old. I’m screwed and will have to sell now at this time of life because I was a pawn on the board of this crappy game they all played and have to pay the price. NOT FAIR AT ALL!!!
Ideally, at the start of your investment journey, you did risk profiling. If you skipped this step and are only now wondering how aligned your investments are to your temperament, that’s OK. Measuring your actual reactions during market agita will provide valuable data for the future. Just keep in mind that your answers may be biased based on the market’s most recent activity.
Ideally, at the start of your investment journey, you did risk profiling. If you skipped this step and are only now wondering how aligned your investments are to your temperament, that’s OK. Measuring your actual reactions during market agita will provide valuable data for the future. Just keep in mind that your answers may be biased based on the market’s most recent activity.
Hedge funds are an alternative for investors with large enough portfolios. Hedge funds use a combination of long and short positions, and other strategies to generate returns regardless of the direction of the overall market. However, when considering hedge funds, you should tread with caution and do your own research. Some hedge funds have performed very well, especially during bear markets – but many others have performed very poorly. Just because a hedge fund is called a hedge fund it does not mean it will perform well during a crash.
The 1987 crash was so big that the stock market ended up losing almost $1/2 trillion. Now, what could be the probable reason for such an unnatural crash in the stock market? Market analysts over the years have deduced the reasons which could have resulted in this market crash. The first and foremost reason they found out was that the market lacked liquidity. The market failed to manage the sudden and extremely high volume of sell orders. It seemed that almost all the investors needed to sell their stocks at that particular time. This became difficult for the market to handle and resulted in the crash.
October 2018 is turning out to be a lot like October 2008.  The S&P 500 has now fallen for 12 of the last 14 trading days, and it is on pace for its worst October since the last financial crisis.  But the U.S. is actually in much better shape than the rest of the world at this point.  Even though they have fallen precipitously in recent days, U.S. stocks are still up 3 percent for the year overall.  On the other hand, global stocks (excluding the U.S.) are now down more than 10 percent for the year, and they are down more than 15 percent from the peak of the market in January.  All it is going to take is a couple more really bad trading sessions to push global stocks into bear market territory.
The next step that was taken was striving to make reforms in accounts. That implied that the companies now needed to make clearer balance sheets that disclosed more information on the transactions and investments of the company. The companies were asked to make a proper disclosure of all details such as stock options and investments that were made offshore by the companies. This was done to give the investors a better understanding of a company before they actually did invest in a particular company. Since this was not mandatory earlier, the investors couldn’t judge a company properly and invest in nonprofitable ventures which led to losses. Since the conflict of interest of the research firms led to losses, the new rule that was laid was that the investment bankers and the research analysts had to work separately. This was needed to be followed very strictly as there were high penalties charged in case of breach of regulations.
The New York Times then noted, "Automatic computerized traders on the stock market shut down as they detected the sharp rise in buying and selling".[25] As computerized high-frequency traders exited the stock market, the resulting lack of liquidity "caused shares of some prominent companies like Procter & Gamble and Accenture to trade down as low as a penny or as high as $100,000".[25] These extreme prices also resulted from "market internalizers",[44][45][46] firms that usually trade with customer orders from their own inventory instead of sending those orders to exchanges, "routing 'most, if not all,' retail orders to the public markets—a flood of unusual selling pressure that sucked up more dwindling liquidity".[26]
Tom Lee had reduced his year-end Bitcoin price prediction from $25,000 to $15,000 last week, Nov. 16, following a massive decline on the markets that started on Nov. 14, with Bitcoin hitting yearly lows. Previously, the crypto bull had, several times, predicted that Bitcoin’s price would rise above $20,000 for the year’s end. Lee announced his first prediction in January this year, advising “aggressive buying,” while considering the $9,000 price point as “the biggest buying opportunity in 2018.”
Home prices have outpaced income. The average income-to-housing cost ratio is 30 percent. In some metro areas, it's skyrocketed to 40 or 50 percent. Unfortunately, metro areas are also where the jobs are. That forces young people to pay more for rent to be close to a job that doesn't pay enough to buy a house. Thirty-two percent of home sales today are going to first time homebuyers, compared to 40 percent historically, says the National Association of Realtors. Typically, this buyer is 32, earns $72,000, and pays $182,500 for a home. A two-income couple pays $208,500 on average.
One factor which supports the argument against a property price crash is ongoing strong population growth. Over the year to the March quarter it remained high at 1.6%, which is at the top end of developed countries. As can be seen in the next chart, net overseas migration has become an increasingly important driver of population growth in recent years.
It is not just the uber rish who lose the most. It is the middle class workers. Those of us who have worked hard and survied years of down sizing in larger corporations who will lose a great deal…along with all those who also benifit from our generosity over the years. All the school supply drives, blood drives, holliday food drives to name a few. We try to contribute the amount to our 401’s to earn the companies matching benifits. We are pentalized for taking out our money until we reach the age of 59. Those of us who are to close to retiring don’t have the opportunity to recoup our money. So we will be faced with working to a much older age then we planned. So in reality…while we may be middle income…we don’t have the ability to just put out our money. If we lose a great portion of our 401’s and there is another housing market crash they have managed to chip away yet another chuck of middle imcome households. Sooner or later it will only be the very poor and the very rich! We need a solution to bring back the middle income and a solution for more and more folks to have the opportunity to move beyond lower income! We have done our best to prepare for what life might throw at us short term and long time, but I do believe it is going to be a bummpy ride, so buckle up my prepper friends.
In 1979, Atari unveiled the Atari 400 and 800 computers, built around a chipset originally meant for use in a game console, and which retailed for the same price as their respective names. In 1981, IBM introduced the IBM 5150 PC with a $1,565 base price[6] (equivalent to $4,213 in 2017), while Sinclair Research introduced its low-end ZX81 microcomputer for £70 (equivalent to £246 in 2016). By 1982, new desktop computer designs were commonly providing better color graphics and sound than game consoles and personal computer sales were booming. The TI 99/4A and the Atari 400 were both at $349 (equivalent to $885 in 2017), Radio Shack's Color Computer sold at $379 (equivalent to $961 in 2017), and Commodore International had just reduced the price of the VIC-20 to $199 (equivalent to $505 in 2017) and the 64 to $499 (equivalent to $1,265 in 2017).[7][8]
Stock market crashes are usually caused by more than one factor. In fact, there are often two sets of reasons for a crash. One set of conditions creates the environment for the sell-off, and another set of factors triggers the beginning of the sell-off. Just because there is a market bubble, it doesn’t mean the market will crash. Usually something needs to occur to cause investors to begin selling and buyers to step away from the stock market.
The NASDAQ released their timeline of the anomalies during U.S. Congressional House Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government-Sponsored Enterprises[73] hearings on the flash crash.[2] NASDAQ's timeline indicates that NYSE Arca may have played an early role and that the Chicago Board Options Exchange sent a message saying that NYSE Arca was "out of NBBO" (National best bid and offer). The Chicago Board Options Exchange, NASDAQ, NASDAQ OMX BX and BATS Exchange all declared self-help against NYSE Arca.[2]
In Professor Sornette’s model, a bubble is a market heading to a critical point. But a crash is not the only possible post-crisis outcome: Prices can also stop rising and reach a higher plateau. It is precisely because of the small but real probability that a bubble will not crash but simply stop growing that it is rational for some investors to stay in the market, even when if they think that it has gone too far, too fast.

Despite the measures to ensure stability in the cryptocurrency market, it's still a struggle to stop or at least reduce cryptocurrencies' volatility. There are still so many factors keeping them volatile. These include: the currencies' lack of intrinsic value, the lack of institutional capital, the implementation of regulations and thin-order books, among other factors.


Canada, along with Australia, stands out both for its sky-high housing prices and its gargantuan household debt levels. Home prices have grown by 24 per cent since 1999, compared to 18 per cent in Australia, 13 per cent in the U.S. and 12 per cent in the U.K. The amount that Canadian families owe, meanwhile, is as big as this country’s GDP, a level surpassed only in Australia, where household debt is now larger the size of the economy.
As an investment banker who buys blocks of mortgages around America this is an important subject as to whether the value of my collateral will deteriorate. Talbott does a good job presenting his case that there is a relationship between household income and housing prices. His point is well taken that low interest rates have fueled this boom and that when rates rise, housing prices will have to come down. So, from the perspective of his thesis, I found this to be well written and well documented even if I agree there is a risk but do not believe that it will be significant.
In 2013, the stock market finally recovered. In the first six months, it gained more points than in any year on record. Stock prices rose faster than earnings, creating an asset bubble. The Dow set over 250 closing records until February 2018. Fears of inflation and higher interest rates almost sent the Dow into a correction. Like many other past stock market crashes, it did not lead to a recession.
One of the reasons Warren Buffett’s predictions tend to have more weight is that they’re less based on outright fortune telling and more on a series of clear indicators. In other words, the Warren Buffett Indicator works like a barometer. It does not predict rain, per se, but it does tell you whether you should look for an umbrella in the closet to keep it handy for the next day.
Many of these Toronto neighbourhoods are in such strategic locations for employment, that given the housing shortage, urban intensification, poor transit and roadways, that the condos and homes in them will never see a significant price drop. The events of the last 3 months with the Liberal’s fair housing act was an acid test. These Toronto neighbourhoods look to be the best neighbourhoods for safe real estate investment.
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As a former portfolio manager, I have seen many hedges for your portfolio. From buying puts to selling calls and using a myriad of ETFs, the choices in the hedging world are limitless.  Now with Bitcoin we need to see if this proves to be a flight to quality in the times of panic.  The best example would be to look at the events around Brexit last year. We saw a major flight to quality, and many managers chose to grab some downside protection.

Also, be sure you're focused on percentages, not points, when thinking about stock market movements. This is something the media doesn't sufficiently understand, often reporting market drops in points instead of percentages. As an example, the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by a whopping 1,175 points in a single day in February 2018, which sure sounds like a lot -- especially compared with 1987's "Black Monday," when the Dow fell 508 points. But in percentage points, it was a meaningful yet not catastrophic 4.6% decline -- while 1987's drop wiped out 22.6% of the market's value at the time. The Dow was near 26,000 at the time of this writing, and the S&P 500 was around 2,800. At those levels, if the Dow "plunges" by 260 points, remember that it would be just a 1% move. Even a 1,000-point drop would be just a 3.85% decline.

The level of panic that we witnessed on Wall Street on Wednesday was breathtaking.  After a promising start to the day, the Dow Jones Industrial Average started plunging, and at the close it was down another 608 points.  Since peaking at 26,951.81 on October 3rd, the Dow has now fallen 2,368 points, and all of the gains for 2018 have been completely wiped out.  But things are even worse when we look at the Nasdaq.  The percentage decline for the Nasdaq almost doubled the Dow’s stunning plunge on Wednesday, and it has now officially entered correction territory.  To say that it was a “bloodbath” for tech stocks on Wednesday would be a major understatement.  Several big name tech stocks were in free fall mode as panic swept through the marketplace like wildfire.  As I noted the other day, October 2018 looks a whole lot like October 2008, and many believe that the worst is yet to come.
Ideally, at the start of your investment journey, you did risk profiling. If you skipped this step and are only now wondering how aligned your investments are to your temperament, that’s OK. Measuring your actual reactions during market agita will provide valuable data for the future. Just keep in mind that your answers may be biased based on the market’s most recent activity.
Some recent peer-reviewed research shows that flash crashes are not isolated occurrences, but have occurred quite often. Gao and Mizrach studied US equities over the period of 1993–2011. They show that breakdowns in market quality (such as flash crashes) have occurred in every year they examined and that, apart from the financial crisis, such problems have declined since the introduction of Reg NMS. They also show that 2010, while infamous for the Flash Crash, was not a year with an inordinate number of breakdowns in market quality.[11]
A better measure of the inadequacy of the current mélange of IT antiquities is that the SEC/CFTC report on the May 6 crash was released on September 30, 2010. Taking nearly five months to analyze the wildest ever five minutes of market data is unacceptable. CFTC Chair Gensler specifically blamed the delay on the “enormous” effort to collect and analyze data. What an enormous mess it is.

The housing market will not grow forever, but it is hard to say when things will change. As Dennis said, real estate trends are very different in various parts of the country. Some parts of the country may see increasing prices for a few more years, while others may see a drop right away. I agree with Dennis that a housing crash like we saw in the mid-2000s is not coming anytime soon. I could see prices steadying out due to the affordability problems in some areas, especially if interest rates rise. Those two factors will not cause a crash when so few homes are being built and the quality of new loans is so high.

In the US specifically, lawmakers have constrained the ability of the Fed to provide liquidity to non-bank and foreign financial institutions with dollar-denominated liabilities. And in Europe, the rise of populist parties is making it harder to pursue EU-level reforms and create the institutions necessary to combat the next financial crisis and downturn.
Consider hiring a fee-only financial advisor to kick the tires on your portfolio and provide an independent perspective on your financial plan. In fact, it’s not uncommon for financial planners to have their own financial planner on their personal payroll for the same reason. An added bonus is knowing there’s someone to call to talk you through the tough times.
“Big surprise and a shock to me. Sitting on strong liquidity position. We have been extremely conservative in maintenance of liquidity. There is no default whatsoever. The repayments are not even due yet. There is ample liquidity lying with us in the system to take care of interest as well as the principle payouts over the next couple of quarters. All this what we are seeing is panic-stricken market reaction. Total liability position till 31 March is just Rs 4,800 crore; obviously there is some amount of CP that is there in the system, but it’s not a very big amount. At the same time there is close to Rs 10,000 crore of liquidity available with us in the system other than collections that we accrue on a monthly basis. Those collections are anywhere between 2500-3000 crore. Not to go on a pledge shares; no loan against shares NPA position is strong; asset quality is top notch,” Kapil Wadhawan, MD, DHFL told CNBC TV 18.

Neil Kashkari talks extensively about false prophets (Alan Greenspan) and the sources of market bubbles such as $100 barrel oil, and other uncontrollable situations.  He says market bubbles and crashes are very complex and the source is often completely unexpected. Could the oil sheiks take the US economy down again? Could China do it? Is the $20 Trillion debt a threat? Or is just the end of a bull run in the stock market?
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